(A) Schematic of an agent-based model (ABM) showing the actions that an individual agent can take; migration, mitosis and apoptosis. (B) Schematic of the initial geometry used for an ABM of the artery wall for the simulation of in-stent restenosis. EC, endothelial cell, VSMC, vascular smooth muscle cell. 
 D. Nolan and C. Lally, "Coupled Finite Element–Agent-Based Models for the Simulation of Vascular Growth and Remodeling", Numerical Methods and Advanced Simulation in Biomechanics and Biological Processes, pp. 283-300, 2018. Available: 10.1016/b978-0-12-811718-7.00016-2.